The World Bank is the world's largest source of development assistance, providing about $20 billion in loans annually to its member countries. Using its twin goals of reducing poverty and increasing shared prosperity, the World Bank uses its financial resources, its highly trained staff, and its extensive knowledge base to help each developing country onto a path of stable, sustainable, and equitable growth. Through its activities in the capital markets, the World Bank is able to fund projects in member countries in areas such as health, education, and essential infrastructure. It also works with countries on important cross cutting priorities such as job creation, gender equality, environmental protection and climate change activities.
The World Bank raises money in international capital markets by issuing bonds that bring solid returns to investors. We invest in member countries so their economies can grow sustainably. So people can help themselves and their environment. (The film is available with Chinese, English, Italian and Japanese Subtitles).
Key Elements of the World Bank Project Cycle
All of the work at the World Bank is anchored in two goals: ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. Reaching these ambitious goals requires the World Bank to deliver the world’s best ideas, knowledge, and experience in development. Country-based teams are the chief interface with clients and are responsible for developing country and regional strategies. They foster selectivity in country programs, ensure that these programs account for the relevant country's individual context and political economy, and integrate public and private sector solutions. To support the country-based programs and marshal the best development knowledge available, the World Bank Group has Global Practices that bring together knowledge and expertise in 14 sectors and 5 cross-cutting areas that range from adapting to climate change to boosting food security or increasing access to energy. Sector Global Practices provide world-class, integrated, evidence-based solutions to help clients address their most complex challenges, while Cross-Cutting Solutions Areas focus the World Bank’s resources on corporate priorities.
I. Project eligibility criteria:
Proceeds from World Bank bonds are used to support financing of projects designed to alleviate poverty and promote shared prosperity in an environmentally and socially sustainable way that protects natural resources, making World Bank bonds especially attractive to investors with ethical or sustainable investment strategies. Examples of projects include:
Invest in people, particularly through basic health and education
Protect the environment
Strengthen the ability of the
governments to deliver quality services, efficiently and transparently
Promote reforms to create a stable
macroeconomic environment, conducive to investment and longterm planning
Focus on social development, inclusion,
governance, and institution building as key elements of poverty reduction
In addition to meeting the
eligibility criteria, all World Bank projects are subject to the World Bank's
environmental and social safeguard policies. A description of these safeguard
policies can be found at: www.worldbank.org/safeguards
II. Process for selecting projects:
All World Bank projects are carefully selected in partnership with client countries prioritizing the areas where the World Bank can help the most. The process involves five steps.
Step 1: Perform a systematic country diagnostic study to identify the biggest constraints and opportunities for reducing poverty and inequality based on analysis of the country’s conditions and its own development aspirations.
Step 2: Define a Country Partnership Framework (CPF) that lays out which of the country’s own development objectives the World Bank can help the government achieve based on its comparative advantages and the alignment with the World Bank’s own mission of ending extreme poverty and increasing shared prosperity.
Step 3: Identify, assess and appraise individual projects and programs identified with the country including conducting feasibility studies that assess the environmental, social and financial sustainability of the proposed projects.
Step 4: Present every project for approval by the Board of Executive Directors: a resident Board with 25 chairs representing its member countries approves projects that demonstrate consistency with the agreed Country Partnership Framework and how they contribute to achieving the twin goals of the World Bank to reduce poverty and promote shared prosperity in a sustainable manner.
Step 5: Monitor and learn from project implementation: government agencies report the projects’ progress and the World Bank monitors the agreed milestones towards achieving the project’s objectives including a formal review at least twice a year. The World Bank also conducts a review of the lessons learned at the conclusion and each project is also subject to an independent evaluation.
For more information about the
World Bank’s country engagement strategy, please see:
The proceeds of the World Bank bonds are invested in accordance with IBRD’s conservative liquidity policy until they are used for the support of the World Bank’s financing of eligible projects and programs. Disbursement requests for eligible projects take place in accordance with IBRD’s established policies and procedures. Disbursements are often made over a period of several years, depending on when each project milestone is reached.
IV. Monitoring and reporting on impact of projects:
The World Bank supervises the implementation of all its projects. Client countries implement the development projects in accordance with the project loan agreement. This includes regular reports by the implementing government agency on project activities, including a mid-term review of project progress. The project's progress, outcomes and impacts are monitored by the government and the World Bank throughout the implementation phase to obtain data to evaluate and measure the ultimate effectiveness of the operation in terms of the objectives it was set to achieve. This documentation is publically disclosed with the project documentation. There is also an audit by the World Bank’s Independent Evaluation Group following completion of the project.
V. Ensuring transparency and compliance:
The World Bank safeguards, policies and procedures apply to all projects. This includes reviews by the World Bank’s financial management and procurement specialists to ensure that adequate fiduciary controls on the use of project funds are in place at the country/project level.
In terms of transparency, there is access to documents, results data and information about projects and operations through the World Bank's Open Data initiative. The World Bank Treasury website provides links to selected projects' information and to newletters that also provide highlights of the World Bank's activities.
World Bank Projects
The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. It is not a bank in the ordinary sense but a unique partnership to reduce poverty and support development across all sectors including education, health, nutrition, and access to essential infrastructure.
The World Bank works across intersecting and complex sectors supporting client development priorities around the world. In FY15, IBRD committed $23.5 billion through 115 projects to help developing countries find solutions to the toughest global and local development challenges.
Some examples of individual projects that are eligible for World Bank financing are highlighted below. This is provided for illustrative purposes only and no assurance is given that disbursements for projects with these specific characteristics will be made by the World Bank during the lifetime of the any specific bond. There is no specific allocation of the proceeds of a World bank bond to one specific project.
Azerbaijan - Rural Investment Project: The objective of the project is to improve access to and use of community-driven rural infrastructure and expand economic activities for rural households. > more
China - Agricultural Product Safety and Quality: The objective of the project is to assist Jilin Province in improving its agricultural product quality and reducing agricultural product safety risks. > more
Indonesia - Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination: The objective of the project is to develop and disseminate relevant and demand-driven innovative technologies, meeting the needs of producers. > more
Paraguay - Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Project: The objective of the project is to improve in a sustainable way the socio-economic condition of small-scale farmers and indigenous communities in the project area. >more
Armenia - Education Improvement Project Improvement:The objective of the project is to improve the quality of education at all levels by focusing on efficiency, equity and the development of new academic programs.>more
Colombia - Rural Education Project and Higher Education Project:The objective of the project is to contribute to increasing equitable rural access from pre-school to upper secondary education.>more
Costa Rica - Higher Education:The objective of the project is to support construction of new buildings and construction or expansion of laboratories, residence halls and libraries for academic staff and other office.>more
Jamaica - Youth Employment in Digital and Animation Industries: The objective of the project is to finance the training and coaching of Jamaican youths in digital skills and directly and indirectly benefit approximately 15,000 young people. >more
Indonesia - Second Power Transmission Development Project:The objective of the project is to help improve electricity supplies and quality in the project areas by building and rehabilitating substations.>more
Pakistan - Hydropower Project:The objective of the project is to strengthen the Water and Power Development Authority's (WAPDA's) capacity to develop the country's hydropower resources.>more
Turkey - Renewable Energy Integration:The objective of the project is to support the construction of high voltage (HV) transmission lines and networks to meet rapidly increasing demand.>more
Jamaica - Integrated Community Development:The objective of the project is toimprove basic infrastructure and access to services, particularly relating to roads, sanitation, and electricity.>more
Kazakhstan - Justice Sector Strengthening Project:The objective of the project is tofinance technical assistance to conduct qualitative and quantitative surveys to determine the institutional capacity of targeted government agencies.>more
Argentina - Provincial Maternal-Child Health:The objective of the project is to improve the quality of education at all levels by focusing on efficiency, equity and the development of new academic programs.>more
Botswana - National HIV/AIDS Prevention:The objective of the project is to contribute to increasing equitable rural access from pre-school to upper secondary education, promoting higher retention of children and youths in the school system.>more
Panama - Health Equity and Performance Improvement Project:The objective of the project is to provide the rural poor with continuous access to a package of health services known to improve mother and child health care.>more
Swaziland - Health, HIV/AIDS, and TB Project: The objective of the project is to fund health services – along with improvements in the quality of health services - with a particular focus on primary health care, maternal health and TB. >more
China - Diannan Center Urban Transport Project:The objective of the project is to support integrated transport management on the major transport corridors, provide infrastructure and equipment, and construct new road links in the cities of Mengzi and Jianshui. > more
Ecuador - Quito Metro Line One:The objective of the project is to contribute to improve urban mobility to reduce travel time, decrease operational costs of the transport service, and reduce emissions from pollutants and greenhouse gases.> more
Albania - Water Resources and Irrigation Project:The objective of the project is to rehabilitate and modernize systems and dam infrastructure; as well as improve the performance of organizations that provide irrigation services.>more
Brazil - BR Sergipe Water:The objective of the project is to contribute to improve water resources and environmental management capacity by promoting more integration of policies and practices.>more
Indonesia - Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income Communities:The objective of the project is to help the Government of Indonesia to achieve MDG targets as well as national coverage goals of 85 percent by 2020 and 100 percent by 2025.>more
Panama - Metro Water and Sanitation Improvement Project: The objective of the project is to support increased coverage of reliable water supply and sanitation services in selected areas where living standards are lower. >more
Argentina - Provincial Public Health Insurance Development Project:The objective of the project is increase health care coverage among all children and women aged 20-64 who lack health insurance.>more
Gabon - Investment Promotion and Competitiveness Project:The objective of the project is to support the Government’s strategy to promote Gabon as a sound investment spot, and build new sectors in the economy. >more
India - Punjab Rural Water and Sanitation Sector Improvement Project:The objective of the project is to help reorganize the department of water supply and sanitation to focus on service delivery through all rural households.>more
Argentina - Sustainable Natural Resources Management Project:The objective of the project is to improve capacity and targets conservation programs with a focus on the highly threatened Chaco region, promoting sustainable practices in commercial plantations.>more
Brazil - Espirito Santo Integrated Sustainable Water Management Project:The objective of the project is to increase the efficiency of water supply services, access to improved sanitation, and wastewater treatment.>more
China - Ningbo Municipal Solid Waste Minimization and Recycling Project:The objective of the project is to support development of capacity for system management and outreach activities.>more
Indonesia - Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management: The objective of the project is to help develop Conservation Areas where fishing will be restricted while providing communities rights to other areas for sustainable fishing. >more
A. Water and Wastewater Systems
China - Bengbu Integrated Environment Improvement: This project seeks to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of selected urban environmental services delivered in Bengbu Municipality. > more
Dominican Republic - Emergency Recovery and Disaster Risk Management: In 2007, the Dominican Republic was hit by two powerful tropical storms that not only left thousands of families homeless and damaged crops. > more
Indonesia - Water Resources and Irrigation Management Program: Good water resources and irrigation management are essential for Indonesia's water and food security (the bulk of Indonesia’s grain crops are from irrigated areas). > more
Tunisia -Second Water Sector Investment: The project promotes efficiency improvements in irrigation schemes, more reliable water supply in rural areas and increased capacity to plan for current and future water management challenges, including climate change. > more
B. Agricultural and Ecological Resources
China - Integrated Forestry Development: Recognizing the important role of forests in supporting rural livelihoods and environmental services, China has increased its forest cover over the past two decades to 38% of the country's territory. > more
Tunisia - Fourth Northwest Mountainous and Forested Areas Development: Tunisia’s mountainous and forested areas of the Northwest cover 1.2 million hectares and support watersheds supplying 75% of the water consumed in the country. > more
C. Infrastructure, Energy and Built Environment
China - Huai River Basin Flood Management and Drainage Improvement: The Huai River Basin is the third largest river basin in China with a population of 165 million people in its watershed. > more
China - Jiangxi Shihutang Navigation & Hydropower Complex Project: Central China’s most significant inland waterway transport (IWT) network is in Jiangxi Province. >more
China - Xining Flood and Watershed Management: This project will improve the safety of people and protection of property from flood events and enhance sustainable utilization of land and water resources within Xining Municipality. > more
Macedonia and Serbia - South East Europe and Caucasus Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility: This project helps increase access of homeowners, farmers, enterprises, and government agencies to financial protection from losses caused by climate change and geological hazards in Macedonia and Serbia. > more
Mexico -Climate Change Development Policy Loan: In Mexico, changes in temperature and precipitation have been increasing flood, drought and hurricane frequencies. > more
Featured Sustainable Investments Products
Sustainable Development Bonds Examples of a few labeled Sustainable Development Bonds (SDBs) that highlight the World Bank’s critical development work: SDB for retail investors in Italy SDB for a private investor in Japan
Three SDBs for retail investors in Japan SDB for a private investor in Japan showcasing World Bank health projects.
All World Bank bonds are used to finance projects and programs aimed at reducing poverty and inequality in a way that is environmentally, socially, and fiscally sustainable. These projects help countries transition to greener and more equitable growth that improves living standards and sustains environmental assets – water, land, air, ecosystems, and the services they provide – for this and future generations. They cover a variety of sectors from education and health to essential infrastructure.
The offering is the first time both the World Bank and SEB have offered bonds to raise funds identified to a specific World Bank program and is one example of the kind of innovation the World Bank is trying to encourage within its “Strategic Framework for Development and Climate Change” launched in early 2008.
More information about the World Bank's green bond is available here.
The first fund comprised principally of World Bank bonds in a variety of emerging market currencies. The fund , managed by Nikko Asset Management, offers Japanese investors the opportunity to participate in a diversified emerging market investment portfolio which will support the mission of the World Bank.
These were the first Uridashis that reference the emission reductions generated from specific projects under the framework defined by the Kyoto Protocol.
DISCLAIMER: This update has been prepared by the World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD) for information purposes only and the IBRD makes no representation, warranty or assurance of any kind, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of any of the information contained herein. This website may include information relating to certain IBRD securities. Any such information is provided only for general informational purposes and does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation for an offer to buy any IBRD securities. The securities mentioned herein may not be eligible for sale in certain jurisdictions or to certain persons.
Videos and Publications about World Bank Sustainable Development Bonds
Overview of the World Bank's bonds offering both a financial and social return, including examples of how projects make a difference in people's lives.
Sustained growth is necessary to achieve the urgent development needs of the world’s poor. There is substantial scope for growing cleaner without growing slower. Green growth is necessary, efficient, and affordable. It is the only way to reconcile the rapid growth required to bring developing countries to the level of prosperity to which they aspire.
World Bank Project Example in Mexico:
Efficient Lighting and Appliances Project
An Inside Look at a World Bank Project in Colombia:
National Urban Transport
Colombia: Integrated Mass Transit System
75% of Colombia's population currently lives in cities and most of these urban residents rely entirely on the public transportation system. Yet, public transportation is the cause of many of these cities' problems, including serious traffic congestion, high incidences of accidents and crime, unhealthy air, and pollutants responsible for 62% of Colombia's carbon emissions.
In 1998, the Colombian government began modernizing its transit system by developing a rapid bus system called Transmilenio in Bogota. Funded by the World Bank through the Bogota Urban Transport Project, the Transmilenio soon became an internationally recognized model for efficiency, improved speed, safety, and reduced urban traffic.
The Colombian government and the World Bank are continuing to work together through the World Bank-funded Integrated Mass Transit Systems Second Additional Financing Project. It is designed to improve transport efficiency and accessibility, and allow for less fuel use per kilometer and fewer air pollutant emissions. It will also reduce fuel consumption as old buses are retired and replaced with new fuel efficient ones. The government continues to see this new transit system as an important contributor to climate change mitigation and is analyzing how further improvements to urban transport systems can contribute to reducing Colombia's carbon footprint.
The Transmilenio program has been registered under the Clean Development Mechanism to deliver carbon credits.
Purpose: To reduce carbon emissions and transform public transportation efficiency.
Project Approval Date: 2009
IBRD Financing: US$ 300 million
Project ID: P114325
In China, millions of households rely on the agriculture sector for their livelihood and their future depends on improved management of their natural resources. The agricultural sector, however, has had widespread negative impacts on the environment because of inadequate farming techniques involving intensive and mechanized farming, misuse of land leading to desertification, over-use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, and the rapid growth in livestock production without adequate environmental controls. In addition, agriculture is responsible for 50% of China’s methane emissions—methane is a potent greenhouse gas.
This project will improve the rural environment and living conditions in the project areas by promoting environmentally friendly and economically efficient farm production. In addition to cleaner, healthier farmyard environments, a key goal of the project is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through methane capture and combustion to generate energy and reduced burning of coal and firewood in the project areas. By the end of the project, CO2eq emissions in the project area are expected to be reduced by 800,000-1,000,000 tons per year.
Purpose: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and deliver economic benefits through biogas systems in rural communities.
Project Term: 2008 – 2014
IBRD Financing: US$ 120 million
Project ID: P096556
Emergency Recovery and Disaster Risk Management
In 2007, the Dominican Republic was hit by two powerful tropical storms that not only left thousands of families homeless and damaged crops, but also destroyed the better part of country’s infrastructure, including roads, bridges, electricity networks, and irrigation systems.
With the help of World Bank-funded Emergency Recovery and Disaster Management Project, the national government is rebuilding the country’s national electricity, irrigation and water supply sectors. It is also strengthening its government agencies’ capacity to manage water and electricity resources in order to mitigate potential effects of future emergencies. As these agencies update contingency plans and increase their risk management capacity, this project is illustrative of climate adaptation support in storm-vulnerable tropical areas.
Purpose: Provide infrastructure recovery and strengthen risk management capacity in tropical storm affected areas
Project Term: 2008 – 2012
IBRD Financing: US$ 80 million
Project ID: P109932
Climate Change Montenegro
Montenegro Energy Efficiency Project
Montenegro imports about one-third of its power to feed its fast growing energy demands and to make-up for diminishing power production due to old structures and limited investments. The government of Montenegro recognizes that additional capacity and greater energy efficiency is badly needed to meet the growing energy demand. Additionally, when national governments make energy efficiency investments in the public sector, local governments become more willing to implement their own energy efficiency programs.
The Montenegro Energy Efficiency Project is designed to improve energy efficiency performance in public sector buildings, such as schools and clinics. The investments finance energy efficiency measures, such as retrofitting to improve heating systems and insulation as well as related heating substations and transmission networks. The project demonstrates practical solutions for efficiency upgrades within the public sector. The project also complements the activities of other donors, such as the governments of Norway and Italy, KfW, GTZ, European Commission, and UNDP, while providing financing for energy efficiency improvements in a sector that has difficulty securing such financing.
Purpose: Improve energy efficiency in buildings used for health and education services
Project Term: 2008 – 2012
IBRD Financing: US$ 9 million
Equal Access to Basic Education Project
The formal education system in Morocco faces many challenges. Drop out and repetition rates are high, and gender and geographical disparities still exist at all education levels. Morocco also faces a rapidly increasing demand for middle schools, as a result of increased access to primary education. With government spending on education already high, opportunities to expand the budget are limited. The Basic Education Reform Project addresses these challenges by supporting government efforts to boost the quality of basic education for all child¬dren ages six to fourteen in a financially sustainable manner.
Purpose: Education for All
Project Term: 2005 – 2009
IBRD Financing: US$ 80 million
Basic Education Project
The National Program Support for Basic Education project aims to improve quality and equity in teaching for all Filipino children in basic education.
The project will help enhance the quality and equity of basic education, improve teaching effectiveness by refining current standards for the hiring and promotion of teachers, develop and further strengthen the management of schools, and help restructure the Education Department's budget.
Gender Equality in Indonesia
Kecamatan Development Project
Before 2001, women and poorer people were under-represented in Indonesia’s local governing bodies, or kecamatans. Without input or participation in kecamatans policy making, these groups did not have adequate access to basic public services such as health care and education. Women, in particular, were not given the public space to demand these services – traditionally, women did not formally participate in local governance.
Through World Bank funding and with the backing of the Indonesian Government, the Kecamatan Development Project was established to support grassroots democratization in more than 15,000 poor villages across Indonesia. Selected women, representing their villages in their designated kecamatan, were able to apply for funds to develop infrastructure, economic activities, social services, and community asset investments which would promote a sustainable economy across all sectors of their communities.
By the project’s end, women's participation in the kecamatans had increased as high as 46%, and $39.6 million in loans were distributed to local women who used the funds to finance traditional enterprises. They were provided training, capacity building, and skill development in activities that helped them to strengthen social services, infrastructure, and the local economy.
Purpose: Empowerment, social inclusion, law and justice
Project Term: 2001 – 2007
IBRD Financing: US$ 208.9 million
Health In Russia
Health Reform Implementation Project
The Tuberculosis and AIDS Control Project aims to contain the growth of the epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS in the short term and halt and reverse the courses of these epidemics in the medium term. This first-ever countrywide TB and HIV/AIDS project in Russia was introduced in 2003 as the country was experiencing one of the world’s fastest-growing HIV/AIDS epidemics that threatens the health of its citizens and the economy. Russia is one of the 22 high-burden countries for TB in the world, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and TB is thought to be present in a dormant form in about 80 percent of Russia’s population.
The project, in partnership with WHO and the Global Fund, supports improvement in policies, strategies and protocols for TB control; strengthens surveillance, monitoring, and quality assurance; improves the detection and treatment of TB cases. Now the strategy has been expanded to cover the 86 regions of the country, and initial results show that with project support since 2004, 85% of cases follow a standardized treatment regimen; a leveling off or a 5% decrease of new TB cases has been achieved; as well as a 5% decrease in TB mortality compared to 2005.
Purpose: Tuberculosis and AIDS support
Project Term: 2003 – 2008
IBRD Financing: US$150 million
Education In Turkey
Second Basic Education Project
Education for all is one of the top priorities of the World Bank in the fight against poverty. In 1998 Turkey embarked on a program of poverty reduction on an epic scale. Virtually overnight it extended compulsory primary school education from five years to eight. The program cost an average of US$3 billion a year. The World Bank provided funds to finance different aspects of the reform.
The second basic education project (2002 – 2007) built on the previous World Bank work in the area of basic education in Turkey. It supported the expansion of preschool education coverage to include children from educationally deprived households, financed continued rural school rehabilitation, and community initiatives to improve school attendance.
Purpose: Education for all
Project Term: 2002 – 2007
IBRD Financing: US$300 million
Social Protection in Ecuador
Judicial Reform Project
Twenty percent of households in Ecuador are headed by women - women who are more vulnerable to the threat of poverty than any other group in society.
Ecuador launched a Judicial Reform project to provide legal services that respond to the needs of women. The law and justice component of the project, which was financed with a World Bank loan, undertook reforms that lent support to non-governmental organizations working to provide free legal services to disenfranchised women. This was the first World Bank-financed project to include a legal aid component aimed at poor women and their children.
The project "Legal Aid for Poor Women" provided legal consultation and representation, counseling, and dispute resolution services to almost 17,000 poor women. It also assisted another 50,000 indirect beneficiaries, most of whom were the children of women making use of these services. Through this program, women gained a greater awareness and understanding of their rights. The evident success of the program inspired other governments to implement similar initiatives.
Purpose: Justice and law
Project Term: 1996 – 2002
IBRD Financing: US$10.7 million
Climate Change Project in China
The Renewable Energy Scale-up Program
The Renewable Energy Scale-up program for China aims to create a legal, regulatory, and institutional environment conducive to large-scale, renewable-electricity generation, and to demonstrate early success in large-scale, renewable-energy development with participating local developers in two provinces. The Project has different components designed to meet national priorities and the needs of the pilot provinces (Fujian and Rudong). One of these components includes wind power generation, demonstrated by a wind farm on Pingtan Island. The wind farm has been able to convert cold winter air into 270 million kilowatt hours of electricity per year for the 400 thousand local residents of Pingtan Island. The Government of China has also given tax breaks and financial incentives for wind, solar and biomass power acquisition, making it easier for local businesses and investors to engage in emission reduction activities.
Purpose: Renewable Energy
Project Term: 2005 – 2010
IBRD Financing: US$87 million
Environment in Kazakhstan
Syr Darya Control & Northern Aral Sea Project
In Kazakhstan, water preservation efforts for the Aral Sea are helping restore its economy. Since the 1990s, the Northern Aral Sea receded as far as 100 km away from the port city of Aralsk, Kazakhstan. Local fisheries processed less than 400 tons of fish, 4 times less than the fish production of the 1980s. The lack of water accessibility affected land production. As a result, fishing and agricultural industries adversely affected unemployment and regional trade in Kazakhstan’s already poorest regions.
Thanks to the construction of an 8 mile dike in the Aral Sea Basin, the value of the Northern Aral Sea has been restored. Part the regional initiative called Aral Sea Basin Program, the World Bank funded dike raised water levels by 4 meters in the Northern Aral Sea. The water distance closed in at only 25 km, increasing fishing production almost back to its historic level. The fishing trade has now resumed to as far west as Ukraine and land production due to flood reduction and major hydraulic works along the Syr Darya River Basin are expected to benefit an estimate of 1 million people in Kazakhstan’s poorest region, Kzyl Orda Oblast.